2008 honda accord length

First time considering servicing my car outside of a dealership:

2023.05.30 18:51 here1for2a3good4time First time considering servicing my car outside of a dealership:

Hello, I have a 2013 Honda accord and was just told by the tow technician yesterday that replaced my battery roadside, that my alternator is giving low output.
I called my local honda dealership and they quoted me almost 1k to get it changed 馃槱
The tow guy was kind enough to offer me a referral to a mechanic he knows that quoted me half price.
I have very little car knowledge and would appreciate some valuable feedback from car enthusiasts out there who do their own maintenance.
-Do I go with the 500$ mechanic ? -Take it to Honda like I always have done? -Is there a way to find out which specific alternator my car needs and purchase it myself to save on costs of parts at a shop?
Thanks in advance!
submitted by here1for2a3good4time to AskAMechanic [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 18:49 here1for2a3good4time First time considering servicing my car outside of a dealership:

Hello, I have a 2013 Honda accord and was just told by the tow technician yesterday that replaced my battery roadside, that my alternator is giving low output.
I called my local honda dealership and they quoted me almost 1k to get it changed 馃槱
The tow guy was kind enough to offer me a referral to a mechanic he knows that quoted me half price.
I have very little car knowledge and would appreciate some valuable feedback from car enthusiasts out there who do their own maintenance.
-Do I go with the 500$ mechanic ? -Take it to Honda like I always have done? -Is there a way to find out which specific alternator my car needs and purchase it myself to save on costs of parts at a shop?
Thanks in advance!
submitted by here1for2a3good4time to accord [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 18:48 life_not_well Oh The Biomes You'll Go [1.18+] Configuration Explain

In Brief

In this post, I will tell you how to config biomes in BYG mod. All the config files should exist in {your_game_folder}/config/byg. If you don't know how to find your game folder, just google it, it is not difficult. And each config file has comments inside, you can read it before following my posts. The last thing, backup your files before changing them!!!
BTW, my English is not well, i hope you can understand this post.


OverWorld Biomes

File Structure

You need to know these files in byg config folder. ![file structure](https://imgur.com/Ge7Uotf)


Simply speaking, minecraft uses region to store chunks. You can find more in here. Open region folder, there are four files normally. Each one has its weight and the selectors.

Biome Selector

You can see there are a lot of selectors divided into different biome types. These selectors choose which vanilla biome to generate or which byg biome to replace. Before reading content below, keep in mind "replace" word used below is not meaning the vanilla biomes will not generate in game.

How to config

  1. Config byg-overworld-biomes.json5. If you dont like any byg biomes to generate in overworld, just change the "overworld_enabled" to false and close my post. I think a lot of people like me want to disable some biomes and enjoy the rest, so keep reading. In "regions" section, it has four values, and byg mod will pick one to generate everytime according to their weight in region files. If you want rare_region generated more, increase the weight in rare_region_1.json5.
  2. Config region files. Next, we're gonna config selectors. Open region files, each biome has its own selector. you maybe notice that some biomes have "variant" suffix, some are not.
    • For these dont have "variant" suffix: replace the vanilla biome with byg biome means it will generate byg biome which should be vanilla biome originally without the byg mod. e.g. if you replace the "minecraft:lukewarm_ocean" with "byg:lush_stacks" in oceans_1.json5(this file should be used in region file as selector), you will see the lukewarm_ocean in game without byg mod, but the lush_stacks with byg mod.
    • For these have "variant" suffix: overworld biome generation is based on 6 parameters, including Weirdness. If weirdness value is greater than 0, the generated biome becomes weirder. Therefore, you can config one byg biome to replace one normal vanilla biome or the weird biome. If weirdness value is greater than 0, byg mod will use normal selector config(filename without variant suffix). Otherwise, it will use variant config. e.g. in peak_biomes_1.json5, "byg:howling_peaks" will replace "minecraft:jagged_peaks"(weirdness < 0) and "minecraft:frozen_peaks"(weirdness >= 0).


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2023.05.30 18:45 bikingfencer 1st John chapter 1

Chapter One
Word the living
[verses 1-4]
  1. [讗转, 鈥檈hTh (indicator of direct object; no English equivalent)] that was from [the] first, [讗转, 鈥檈hTh] that we heard, [讗转, 鈥檈hTh] that we saw in our eyes, that we looked [讛讘讟谞讜, HeeBahTNOo] in him and our hands felt [诪砖砖讜, MeeSheShOo] him, concerning [注诇-讗讜讚讜转, `ahL-鈥橭DOTh] word the living.
  2. And the life was revealed and we saw it, and we are [讜讛专讬谞讜, VeHahRaYNOo] witnessing and making known to you [讗转, 鈥檈hTh] lives the eternal that was with [讗爪诇, 鈥檈hTsehL] the father and was revealed to us.
鈥溾楨ternal鈥 means not what is future in terms of time but what is unending and what is of the character of the life Christ lived 鈥his conception corrects a common perversion of the gospel. Expositors often interpret eternal life as future immortality and withhold the richest gift Christianity offers to men 鈥 life with God now. It defines the true measure of life as qualitative rather than quantitative. Length of years is not life and to speak of 鈥榣ong鈥 or 鈥榮hort鈥 lives is false; one ought rather to speak of large and small lives, poor and rich lives, empty and full lives. Man鈥檚 need is to add life to his years rather than years to his life.鈥 (Wilder, 1955, TIB p. XII 219)
  1. That which we saw and heard we make known also to you, so that you may fellowship with us also you. And indeed, fellowship, she is with father and with his son, YayShOo鈥檃 the anointed.
  2. This we write so that will be our happiness fulfilled.
The Gods he is light [verses 5 to end of chapter]
鈥 the theme of the divine 鈥榣ife鈥 gives way to that of the light as one that lends itself better to the ethical considerations now to be pursued. The same transition is found in the prologue to the Gospel of John when it speaks of the personal Word, 鈥業n him was life, and the life was the light of men鈥 (John 1:4). 鈥 Light symbolism is universal in religion, and is particularly marked in the Johannine writings. The background for its use here is found both in Jewish and in pagan Hellenistic writings鈥︹ (Wilder, 1955, TIB p. XII 221)
  1. And this word the tidings that we heard from him, and we make heard to you, that the Gods, light is he, and any darkness has not in him.
鈥淭he actual identification of God or his Son or Messenger with light goes back into the syncretism of the East. In the Fourth Gospel and in these epistles the mythological associations of the term have been lost鈥 in the present case God himself is defined as light absolutely (the only similar definitions: 鈥楪od is love,鈥 I John 4:8, 16, and 鈥楪od is spirit,鈥 John 4:24) 鈥 The emphatic repudiation of any darkness in God in the second half of the verse may be aimed at heretical teaching. Irenaeus in his criticism of the Gnostics continually points out the inconsistency in their teaching that evil arose in the divine order鈥︹ (Wilder, 1955, TIB pp. XII 222-223)
  1. If we say that fellowship to us is with Him, and we walk in darkness, worders false are we, and we have not realized [诪拽讬诪讛, MeQahYeMeeYM] [讗转, 鈥檈hTh] the truth.
鈥淭he Gnostics, against whose errors it is supposed this epistle was written, were great pretenders to knowledge, to the highest degrees of the divine illumination, and the nearest communion with the Fountain of holiness, while their manners were excessively corrupt.鈥 (Clarke, 1831, p. VI 860)
鈥淭he Christian experience of salvation is sometimes so intense that it can result in overconfidence. Moreover, it was a central teaching of the gospel that the new age had come in some real sense 鈥 that new age in which God would wash away men鈥檚 sins and give them a new heart. The Christian 鈥榖orn anew not of perishable seed but of imperishable, through the living and abiding word of God鈥 (I Pet. [Peter] 1:23), or belonging to the 鈥榥ew creation鈥 (Gal. [Galatians] 6:15鈥), would all to easily be inclined to think that the possibility of sin was transcended鈥︹ (Wilder, 1955, TIB p. XII 223)
  1. But if we walk in light, like that he is in light, for then we fellowship this with this,
鈥溾 Walking in the light means letting our lives be ordered by reality, by things as they are.鈥 (Wilder, 1955, TIB p. XII 224)
and blood of YayShOo`ah the anointed in us purifies [诪讟讛专, MeTahHayR] us from all sin.
鈥淭he meritorious efficacy of his passion and death, has purged our consciences from dead works; and cleanseth us, 魏伪胃伪蟻喂味蔚喂 畏渭伪蟼 [katharizei ymas], continues to cleanse us; i.e. [in other words] to keep clean what he has made clean; for it requires the same merit and energy to preserve holiness in the soul of man, as to produce it鈥︹ (Clarke, 1831, p. VI 860)
  1. If we say that have not in us sin,
鈥淚t is very likely that the heretics, against whose evil doctrines the apostle writes, denied that they had any sin, or needed any Saviour. Indeed, the Gnostics even denied the Christ suffered; the 脝on, or Divine Being that dwelt in the man Christ Jesus, according to them, left him when he was taken by the Jews; and he, being but a common man, his sufferings and death had neither merit nor efficacy.鈥 (Clarke, 1831, p. VI 860)
we deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us.
  1. If we confess of our sins, he is faithful and righteous to pardon us of our sins, and to cleanse us of all iniquity.
鈥溾 our author sees a continuous forgiveness and cleansing.鈥 (Wilder, 1955, p. XII 224)
  1. If we say that we did not sin, to a liar [诇讻讜讝讘, LeKhOZayB] put we him, and his word have not in us.
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2023.05.30 18:31 Professional-Bet-910 2000 honda accord w 150k+ kms rattling n idles

2000 honda accord w 150k+ kms rattling n idles
why does it sound like this? im scared.
my brother jgh n the was empty. smelt like burnt metal or rubber not rlly sure. yesterday it wasnt like this but idk what happened. can yall diagnose this? my brother said the car died at a stoplight and jus before he got home it died again. its a 2000 honda accord w 150k km automatic trans
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2023.05.30 18:26 TurnipYadaYada6941 Emotions in AI - how can we simulate them & what is the use ?

Emotion in AI is almost a taboo subject, often meeting with outright rejection, along the lines of 'Machines can't feel, because they are not conscious/don't have bodies'.
The argument is that human emotion is based on physical sensations and chemical changes - oxytocin, adrenalin etc. However the source of the emotions does not seem to be that important. Ultimately sensors in the body induce a 'mental state' in the brain. It may be the pattern of neuronal activation, or a more complex effect that modifies the activation function of groups of neurons - but the emotion is a purely mental phenomenon, resulting in modified behaviour.
Without getting into any philosophical considerations of whether an AI can 'feel' emotion or merely act as if it feels emotion, how can emotion be created in AIs (especially LLMs) ?
In the 1940's, Fritz Heider and Mary-Ann Simmel showed how humans would interpret triangle and circle shapes moving on a plane as aggressive or fearful according to the pattern of movement, and their environment. The behaviour of the shapes implied they felt emotions.
In the 1980's Braitenburg's vehicles showed that simple vehicles equipped with sensors and motors, could give the illusion of 'liking' light or dark, as a result of goal seeking behaviour.
Human emotions are complex because there is a complex basis of myriad chemical/physical sensations. These emotions evolved in order to help organisms survive. Sexual attraction and Fight/Flight responses are directly survival related. Other emotions - embarrassment, curiosity, boredom - have more nuanced functions.
Many human emotions have no value to an AI, but some do. Perhaps AI could start with a small subset - love and curiosity. Both seem achievable within the framework of reinforcement learning - in fact curiosity has already been addressed as a means of encouraging exploration.
However defining a reward function which could lead to 'loving' behaviour is a massive research topic. It would be good if an AI could learn to value/seek interaction with humans, as a result of sensing some reward from satisfactory interactions. Simply rewarding the number of interactions, or the length of interactions with individuals are not adequate reward policies, as these could easily push the AI into sensationalist/dramatic dialogues or 'click-bait' tactics. The AI should try to assess how much it has helped people in its interactions, and experience reward based on this - but some independence in the assessment is required to stop the AI reward-hacking.
The AI will undoubtedly interact with hostile, malevolent and damaged people. Some components of its reward policy must consider this, if only to prevent the AI learning to hate them.
IMHO some reward scheme based on human interactions could result in an AI that loves and cares for humanity. That would be a massive step for AI safety !
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2023.05.30 17:53 SchrodingersSmilodon (Spoilers Extended) A unified theory of the Others, the Long Night, the Horn of Winter, and Bloodraven, Part 4

This is the third in a series of posts, in which I present a theory on the history of the Others. You can read part one here, part two here, and part three here.
My previous posts came with a disclaimer, which I'm going to copy-paste below:
In a certain sense, I am both a new and an old fan of ASOIAF. I read the books about ten years ago, enjoyed them, and then barely thought about them ever again after putting them down. Then, HotD got me interested in the series again, and I ended up going down the rabbit hole of fan theories, speculation about future books, details that I missed on my first reading, etc., which has been a lot of fun! But I鈥檝e only read the series once, and it was ten years ago, so a lot of my memories are pretty fuzzy. Honestly, a lot of my knowledge comes from the wiki (although I have gone back and reread certain important chapters). All of this is to say, I am not the most knowledgeable person to be coming up with fan theories, and the fact that I鈥檓 posting this at all probably indicates a certain amount of Dunning-Kruger effect. Take everything I say here with a grain of salt, and please let me know if there鈥檚 something obvious that my ignorance has caused me to miss. Other than that, let me know what you think!
But I also need to include another disclaimer: I came up with this theory before I became aware of the idea that Bloodraven wasn't the three-eyed crow, and, as such, this theory assumes that Bloodraven is the three-eyed crow. To be honest, I'm becoming increasingly sympathetic to the idea that Bloodraven isn't the 3EC, but I'm still undecided. If Bloodraven isn't the 3EC, that will poke a few holes in this theory, but I ultimately think it wouldn't be too big of a problem. After all, the 3EC led Bran to Bloodraven, so they must share at least some goals. So, I ask that you assume for the purposes of this post that Bloodraven is the 3EC, with the understanding that, if it turns out that Bloodraven isn't the 3EC, this theory will need some minor amending. I've already been thinking about theories on that topic, so, if and when I finish such a theory, I'll post it and discuss how it modifies this theory. But that's getting ahead of ourselves. For now鈥

Part 4: Bloodraven

Making First Men horny

One of the most powerful pieces of magic we're told of in ASOIAF is the Hammer of the Waters. This is a spell that causes powerful earthquakes, capable of radically reshaping the geography where it's used. The Children of the Forest are said to have used the Hammer of the Waters on at least two occasions: once to flood the Neck, and once to break the Arm of Dorne. I argued in my previous post that the Horn of Winter contains the same magic as the Hammer of the Waters, and that when Joramun blew the Horn of Winter the resulting earthquake destroyed the western section of the Wall and created the Gorge. However, while the Horn of Winter replicates the magic of the Hammer of the Waters, that doesn't mean the Horn of Winter was the original Hammer of the Waters; that is to say, I don't think that the Horn of Winter was used to flood the Neck or break the Arm of Dorne. There are a few reasons why the Horn probably wasn't responsible for these historical events:
  1. The Horn of Winter is probably the same horn that's currently in Sam's possession (link to a series of posts that analyzes the Horn of Winter and lays out this argument), and that horn is banded in bronze. The CotF didn't work with bronze.
  2. TWOIAF described how the CotF brought about the Hammer of the Waters, and it had nothing to do with sounding a horn. Supposedly, it was your standard blood sacrifice deal: kill a bunch of people, and in exchange a powerful magical effect will occur. While the Horn of Winter might kill the person who blew it (in the same way Dragonbinder does), we have no reason to believe it requires a mass sacrifice.
  3. Creating the Gorge, while no mean feat, is much less impressive than breaking the Arm of Dorne or flooding the Neck. The Horn of Winter appears to be a weaker version of the Hammer of the Waters.
So it looks like, compared to the original Hammer of the Waters, the Horn of Winter represents a tradeoff of power for convenience: the resulting earthquake isn't as strong, but you can create an earthquake without performing a massive blood sacrifice. But I want to focus on the fact that the Horn of Winter is banded in bronze. The CotF don't use bronze, but you know who do? The First Men. The Horn of Winter contains the magic of the CotF, but its physical structure could only have been made by the First Men. This suggests that the First Men (or some faction thereof) and the CotF (or some faction thereof) collaborated to create the Horn of Winter.
I suspect that that First Men faction was none other than the Stark Kings of Winter; this would explain why it's called the Horn of Winter in the first place. Regardless of which group of First Men was responsible, however, it's easy to see why they did it: the Horn of Winter is a powerful weapon, and any faction of First Men would have been happy to have such a weapon in their possession. So the interesting question isn't, "Why did the First Men work with the CotF to create the Horn of Winter?" The interesting question is, "Why did the CotF work with the First Men to create the Horn of Winter?" Why would the CotF give the First Men a weapon capable of destroying the Wall?
Let's take a step back and recall the role that the CotF played in the events leading up to the construction of the Wall. Their lands were invaded by the First Men, and I argued in my first post that they responded by creating the Others as a race of slave soldiers to fight the First Men. After the Pact ended the war between the CotF and the First Men, the CotF kept the Others enslaved and/or hunted down the free ones in the Lands of Always Winter. Then the Long Night came, and I argued in my second post that the Others took advantage of it by attacking the First Men, killing them en masse in order to grow their power, with the ultimate goal of attacking the CotF. Eventually, the CotF participated in the peace agreement that ended the Long Night. But it's worth remembering that the CotF only interceded in the conflict between humans and Others at the urging of the Last Hero:
"Now these were the days before the Andals came, and long before the women fled across the narrow sea from the cities of the Rhoyne, and the hundred kingdoms of those times were the kingdoms of the First Men, who had taken these lands from the children of the forest. Yet here and there in the fastness of the woods the children still lived in their wooden cities and hollow hills, and the faces in the trees kept watch. So as cold and death filled the earth, the last hero determined to seek out the children, in the hopes that their ancient magics could win back what the armies of men had lost." (AGOT, Bran IV)
Prior to the Last Hero, the CotF seem to have been content to sit back and watch the humans and the Others kill each other鈥攚hich, considering the history of those three species, is understandable. (According to Sam, the CotF did at one point give obsidian daggers to the Night's Watch, so the CotF did get involved in the conflict between the humans and the Others eventually, but this probably didn't happen until after the Last Hero made contact with them. Old Nan says that the Last Hero had to go on a quest of some difficulty to make contact with the CotF; presumably, this wouldn't have been necessary if the CotF were already giving obsidian daggers to the Night's Watch, because then the Last Hero could have just gone to the Night's Watch and gotten in contact with the CotF that way. So, for most if not all of the Long Night, the CotF did not provide humans with obsidian weapons, meaning that they truly were uninvolved in the conflict between the two species.) I argued in my second post that the peace agreement between the First Men and the Others was an essential part of ending the Long Night, and that this was facilitated by the Last Hero/Azor Ahai. The CotF's absence in the conflict between the humans and the Others prior to the Last Hero's involvement suggests that the CotF had no desire to see the humans and the Others make peace. They only facilitated a peace agreement because it was necessary in order to end the Long Night. The Long Night was an existential threat to the CotF, both because the forests can't survive in an eternal night and because the Others might eventually become powerful enough to threaten the CotF. So the CotF needed to end the Long Night, and ending the Long Night necessitated a peace agreement between humans and Others. It's very easy to imagine that the Last Hero's pitch to the CotF went something like, "Look, I know there's no love lost between you and humanity, and certainly none between you and the Others. But the Long Night isn't going to end unless all three species work together, and the Long Night will kill you guys, just as it will kill humanity. For your own sake, work with us to end this." Clearly, this argument was persuasive. But, once the Long Night ended, the CotF no longer had any reason to care about peace between the humans and the Others鈥攁 peace that only existed thanks to the Wall, which was partially destroyed by the Horn of Winter, which the CotF helped to create. The logical conclusion is that the CotF made the Horn of Winter in order to destroy the Wall and renew the war between the humans and the Others. The CotF weren't unconcerned observers to the human-Other war; they actively wanted the two species to fight.
You may be wondering, why didn't the CotF just destroy the Wall using the Hammer of the Waters? The problem with doing that is that the Hammer of the Waters is distinctly CotF magic, so destroying the Wall with the Hammer of the Waters would have pointed right back to the CotF. The humans and the Others would have known that the CotF were trying to provoke them back into war, and they would have naturally resisted those efforts. The way around this is to give humans access to the same magic as the Hammer of the Waters. That way, when the humans use that magic near the Wall, it will be the humans who are responsible for destroying the Wall. Helping the First Men create the Horn of Winter was therefore a way for the CotF to end the peace between humanity and the Others, all while maintaining plausible deniability. And it kind of worked; the Horn of Winter did destroy the western part of the Wall. But this didn't result in the human-Other war that the CotF wanted, because, as I argued in my previous post, the Others' queen was taken captive at the same time as the destruction of the Wall, and she's been used as a hostage to keep the peace ever since.

Child psychology

I've argued that the CotF wanted the humans and Others to fight, but I haven't explained why they'd want that. The easy answer is that the CotF have grievances with both the humans and the Others, so they wanted bloodshed between the two. But we shouldn't accept that easy answer too readily. If we're going to understand what the CotF want, we're going to have to get inside their heads. The books tell us about at least one way in which CotF psychology differs from human psychology:
"That was in the dawn of days, when our sun was rising. Now it sinks, and this is our long dwindling. The giants are almost gone as well, they who were our bane and our brothers. The great lions of the western hills have been slain, the unicorns are all but gone, the mammoths down to a few hundred. The direwolves will outlast us all, but their time will come as well. In the world that men have made, there is no room for them, or us."
She seemed sad when she said it, and that made Bran sad as well. It was only later that he thought, Men would not be sad. Men would be wroth. Men would hate and swear a bloody vengeance. The singers sing sad songs, where men would fight and kill. (ADWD, Bran III)
So we're told that vengeance and spite aren't really a thing for the CotF, or at least not in the way that they are for humans. I've heard some people suggest that Leaf might be lying here, and that the CotF actually do want vengeance, but I don't think so, for a couple of reasons. First, and this is purely personal preference, I think it's a lot more interesting if the CotF don't think in the same way that humans do. If you're going to have multiple sentient species in your story, and they all think and behave in the same way, then it kind of defeats the purpose of having multiple species in the first place, doesn't it? If the CotF think and act just like humans do, I would personally find that boring. Secondly, and more importantly, we know that the CotF employ at least one human, Bloodraven, as a greenseer. This is a position of importance and confidence in CotF society, and it gives Bloodraven access to immense information. If the CotF were really planning on taking vengeance on humanity, then it's unlikely that they would be able to hide that information from Bloodraven (and any other human greenseers the CotF had; we don't know if Bloodraven was the only one), and it's unlikely that Bloodraven would help the CotF destroy or harm his own species. So the fact that the CotF rely on Bloodraven (and possibly other human greenseers in the past) suggests that the CotF genuinely don't wish any ill will on humanity, just as Leaf said. And if the CotF don't wish any ill will on humanity today, then they also probably didn't wish any ill will on humanity at the time they made the Horn of Winter鈥攖hat was back when humans still held to the Pact, so the CotF would have had fewer grievances back then than they do today. So, if the CotF wanted to cause a war between the humans and the Others, and their goal wasn't to cause any long-term harm to humanity as a species, then their intent must have been to harm, weaken, or exterminate the Others. The CotF wanted the humans and the Others to go back to war, and they wanted humans to win. This explains why the CotF used to gift obsidian daggers to the Night's Watch.
This raises the question, if the CotF wanted humans to defeat the Others, why didn't they help the humans during the Long Night (at least, prior to the Last Hero's involvement)? Well, once again, we need to consider the psychology of the CotF. We know the CotF are willing to fight incredibly bloody wars, as they did against the First Men, but we also know that they won't keep fighting in a hopeless circumstance simply to spite their enemy, in the way that humans will. In situations where they are faced with assured destruction, they react with sad acceptance, not defiance. The fact that the CotF didn't initially participate in the war against the Others during the Long Night indicates that they must have viewed that war as hopeless. The Others were sweeping south, massacring humans, converting their boys into more Others and raising the rest as wights, constantly growing stronger; the CotF must have concluded that there was nothing they could do, no way to survive the Long Night. They didn't just roll over and die, but they weren't about to fight the Others when they had no chance of success. The CotF most likely hid, guarding themselves with magic, waiting to die a slow death鈥攋ust like they're doing today.
Fortunately for the CotF, the Long Night did not end in their extinction. As I argued in my second post, Azor Ahai negotiated a peace treaty that ended the Long Night. But, as part of that peace treaty, the Others received a queen, the first female member of their species (whom I've been referring to as the Night's Queen). This allowed the Others to reproduce sexually, as opposed to their earlier method of kidnapping human children, and as a result the Others' population would have begun increasing dramatically following the Long Night. So, on the one hand, the Others were no longer benefitting from the Long Night, meaning they were more vulnerable than they had been prior to the peace treaty. But, at the same time, the Others were growing more powerful, as their population rose. For the first time since the Long Night began, the CotF could now hope for victory in a war with them and the humans on one side and the Others on the other side, but they had a very narrow window in which to act, before the Others became too powerful. That's why they only began making moves against the Others after the Long Night; during the Long Night the Others were too strong to be realistically opposed, and before the Long Night the Others weren't seen as a significant threat. Once the Long Night ended, however, the CotF got to work, by helping to make the Horn of Winter and by providing the Night's Watch with obsidian.

Things change

The above description probably makes it seem like the CotF were motivated to provoke a new war against the Others out of self-preservation, and there may well be some truth in that. The Others, with their new queen, were a rising power, and they still probably harbored a vendetta against the CotF. If the new war against the Others resulted in the Others' extinction, that would obviously guarantee the CotF's safety from them; if the war resulted in the Night's Queen being killed or captured (which I argued is what happened), that would remove the Others' status as a rising power. So, if the CotF were acting out of self-preservation, their plan seems to have been both well motivated and reasonably successful.
But, while the CotF might have successfully averted the risk posed by the Others, they failed to do the same with the humans. Leaf, and presumably the other CotF, fully recognize that humanity's expansion is going to drive them extinct. This has massive implications for the CotF's goals and motivations. The fact that the CotF are aware of and resigned to their inevitable extinction means that self-preservation is no longer a concern for them. They might have been motivated by self-preservation following the end of the Long Night, but not anymore. Whatever the CotF are doing nowadays, they're doing it because there's something they want to accomplish before they vanish as a species. And I do think that the CotF are trying to accomplish something, partly because characters that don't want anything are boring, and partly because Bloodraven is clearly up to something, and the CotF are supporting him. So, if they're not motivated by self-preservation, what are the CotF trying to do?
A common idea I've heard is that Bloodraven and the CotF want to prevent the Others from destroying the world in a second Long Night. I think there's an element of truth to this (especially considering the lengths the CotF have already gone to to oppose the Others), but I don't think it's the whole story. Consider this: if the CotF want to prevent the Others from conquering Westeros, but they're not motivated by self-preservation, then they must be motivated by some combination of altruism and guilt. They created the Others, then the Others got out of hand, to the point where they threatened all of Westeros, and now the CotF feel responsible for making sure they don't do that again. That's reasonable, even noble, but it can't be limited to merely defeating the Others in this latest confrontation. If all that comes of this current conflict with the Others is that the Others are prevented from conquering Westeros, then who's to say that the Others won't try to conquer Westeros a third time in another 8,000 years? And by the time that happens, the CotF will be extinct, so they won't be around to help with that conflict. Simply defeating the Others and thwarting their plans would be a temporary solution to a permanent problem, and, with the CotF facing their own extinction, they would see now as a time for permanent solutions. And when the problem in question is the existence of the Others, there can be only one solution: The CotF want to wipe out the Others completely. I suspect they wanted this ever since the Long Night; they probably see it as cleaning up after their mess. Now, with their extinction looming, that plan to genocide the Others has been made a priority.
I know that my logic has involved jumping around in time a lot, so, as a summary, let me present this handy timeline of the CotF's thoughts on the Others:
I want to comment on an interesting theme here. You may notice a certain paternalism in the CotF's attitudes toward humans. This has already demonstrated in the books:
"Two hundred years?" said Meera.
The child smiled. 鈥淢en, they are the children.鈥 (ADWD, Bran II)
It has often been observed that the Others, as an existential threat that can only be dealt with if humanity puts away its petty political squabbles, serve as a metaphor for climate change. In this metaphor, the CotF are the older generations that caused climate change in the first place and now are dying off for unrelated reasons. The CotF's behavior can then be seen as an aspirational model for how older generations should behave with regards climate change. Rather than saying, "Fuck it, I'll be dead, so it's not my problem," they ought to say, "I'm partly responsible for this, so I need to fix it, and the fact that I won't be around that much longer only means I need to work harder to fix it while I still can." Sadly, the CotF only behave the way they do because of their inhuman psychology, which points to the fact that it was never realistic to hope that older generations would behave this way in real life. I doubt this theme is intentional; Martin seems to have originally not seen the Others as a climate change metaphor, although he's since come around to the idea. Still, I think it's a neat connection.

It was Bloodraven all along

If the CotF really want to wipe out the Others, then the current situation at Winterfell must seem perfect for them. I argued in my last post that the events of the series have left Winterfell vulnerable, and the Others are now planning a rescue mission to extract their queen from the Winterfell crypts. With their queen no longer held captive, there will be nothing preventing war between humans and Others (and, after the humans kept the Night's Queen imprisoned for thousands of years, the Others will definitely have cause for war), and this war will happen while the CotF are still around to support the humans. Better still, humanity has dragons again, which will surely be useful against the Others. Everything seems to be going swimmingly for the CotF's plan to provoke a war of extermination against the Others, which raises an obvious question: did the CotF cause the current situation?
To grossly oversimplify a complex series of events, Winterfell's vulnerability can be traced back to two events:
As it happens, there's evidence that Bloodraven played a part in both of these events. First, Bloodraven was probably responsible for sending the direwolves to the Stark children (link to a series of posts by JoeMagician that lays out this argument, among other claims), and these direwolves shaped the events that led to Ned's beheading. Summer killed Bran's assassin before he could murder Bran, but also before he could be interrogated by the Starks; as a result, Catelyn acquired the Valyrian steel dagger, but she didn't know who sent the assassin. Littlefinger took advantage of this to manipulate the Starks. Meanwhile, the Nymeria/Lady incident deepened tensions between the Starks and the Lannisters. I'm not saying that the direwolves exist solely for the purpose of getting Ned's beheaded, but they did contribute to his beheading, by providing Littlefinger with a means of manipulating the Starks and by further souring relations between Ned and Cersei.
More significantly, Bloodraven removed Bran's memory of Jaime pushing him from the tower:
Bran was staring at his arms, his legs. He was so skinny, just skin stretched taut over bones. Had he always been so thin? He tried to remember. A face swam up at him out of the grey mist, shining with light, golden. "The things I do for love," it said.
Bran screamed.
The crow took to the air, cawing. Not that, it shrieked at him. Forget that, you do not need it now, put it aside, put it away. It landed on Bran鈥檚 shoulder, and pecked at him, and the shining golden face was gone. (AGOT, Bran III)
If Bran had kept that memory, then he presumably would have woken up and told someone, "Jaime Lannister pushed me out of the tower, after I saw him wrestling naked with Queen Cersei." How exactly this would have changed the events of the book is a matter of fanfic, but, with eye-witness evidence of Jaime and Cersei committing incest and attempted murder, it's very easy to see things going poorly for the Lannisters. Even Cersei recognized how difficult of a situation that would have been to navigate:
If truth be told, Jaime had come to rue heaving Brandon Stark out that window. Cersei had given him no end of grief afterward, when the boy refused to die. "He was seven, Jaime," she鈥檇 berated him. "Even if he understood what he saw, we should have been able to frighten him into silence."
"I didn鈥檛 think you鈥檇 want鈥"
"You never think. If the boy should wake and tell his father what he saw鈥"
"If if if." He had pulled her into his lap. 鈥淚f he wakes we鈥檒l say he was dreaming, we鈥檒l call him a liar, and should worse come to worst I鈥檒l kill Ned Stark."
"And then what do you imagine Robert will do?" (ASOS, Jaime I)
Had Bran kept his memory of Jaime pushing him out of the window, then it likely would have been Cersei and Jaime's downfall, and that means Ned wouldn't have lost his head.
Later, when Theon takes Winterfell, he wakes up suddenly in the middle of the night, and he gets the feeling that someone was responsible for waking him:
One moment he was asleep; the next, awake.
Kyra nestled against him, one arm draped lightly over his, her breasts brushing his back. He could hear her breathing, soft and steady. The sheet was tangled about them. It was the black of night. The bedchamber was dark and still.
What is it? Did I hear something? Someone?
Wind sighed faintly against the shutters. Somewhere, far off, he heard the yowl of a cat in heat. Nothing else. Sleep, Greyjoy, he told himself. The castle is quiet, and you have guards posted. At your door, at the gates, on the armory.
He might have put it down to a bad dream, but he did not remember dreaming. (ACOK, Theon IV)
This was the chapter where Bran and company "escape," and Theon's primary emotions throughout the chapter are anxiety and desperation. Those feelings build over the course of the day, as Theon tries and fails to find Bran and Rickon, eventually consuming him to the point where he does something stupid.
"Joseth has the right of it," said Maester Luwin. "Groping through the woods by torchlight will avail us nothing."
Theon could taste bile at the back of his throat, and his stomach was a nest of snakes twining and snapping at each other. If he crept back to Winterfell empty-handed, he might as well dress in motley henceforth and wear a pointed hat; the whole north would know him for a fool. And when my father hears, and Asha 鈥
"M鈥檒ord prince." Reek urged his horse near. (ACOK, Theon IV)
Theon woke up in the middle of the night with a sense that something was off, and then he had plenty of time to stew in his anxiety. Were it not for that, he might not have descended to the point where killing the miller's boys seemed like a good idea. Therefore, the hint that someone was responsible for waking him up is interesting; maybe Bloodraven used his psychic tree powers to wake Theon? The passage mentions the "sigh" of wind鈥攁 notably anthropomorphic phrasing鈥攁nd we know that, when Bran tried to communicate with Ned in the past, it sounded like wind to him; maybe Bloodraven can do something similar, sans time travel? There's nothing explicitly pointing to Bloodraven, but there is evidence that he's messing with Theon's emotions in his next chapter:
The sky was a gloom of cloud, the woods dead and frozen. Roots grabbed at Theon鈥檚 feet as he ran, and bare branches lashed his face, leaving thin stripes of blood across his cheeks. He crashed through heedless, breathless, icicles flying to pieces before him. Mercy, he sobbed. From behind came a shuddering howl that curdled his blood. Mercy, mercy. When he glanced back over his shoulder he saw them coming, great wolves the size of horses with the heads of small children. Oh, mercy, mercy. Blood dripped from their mouths black as pitch, burning holes in the snow where it fell. Every stride brought them closer. Theon tried to run faster, but his legs would not obey. The trees all had faces, and they were laughing at him, laughing, and the howl came again. He could smell the hot breath of the beasts behind him, a stink of brimstone and corruption. They鈥檙e dead, dead, I saw them killed, he tried to shout, I saw their heads dipped in tar, but when he opened his mouth only a moan emerged, and then something touched him and he whirled, shouting 鈥 (ACOK, Theon V)
Theon feels guilty for faking Bran and Rickon's death, and he's afraid for his future; that guilt and fear would have existed in him no matter what, but these dreams amplify those feelings, and the presence of weirwood trees suggests that Bloodraven is actively sending them to Theon. After all, none of Theon's experiences have involved a weirwood in any significant capacity, so this wasn't a native element of his dream, and Bran often has dreams about a weirwood that are implied to be sent by Bloodraven. Theon's fear and his attempts to rationalize his guilt drive him to cling desperately to his power and authority:
"Your prize will be the doom of you. Krakens rise from the sea, Theon, or did you forget that during your years among the wolves? Our strength is in our longships. My wooden pisspot sits close enough to the sea for supplies and fresh men to reach me whenever they are needful. But Winterfell is hundreds of leagues inland, ringed by woods, hills, and hostile holdfasts and castles. And every man in a thousand leagues is your enemy now, make no mistake. You made certain of that when you mounted those heads on your gatehouse." Asha shook her head. "How could you be such a bloody fool? Children 鈥"
"They defied me!" he shouted in her face. "And it was blood for blood besides, two sons of Eddard Stark to pay for Rodrik and Maron." The words tumbled out heedlessly, but Theon knew at once that his father would approve. "I鈥檝e laid my brothers鈥 ghosts to rest." (ACOK, Theon V)
All of this causes Theon to reject Asha's offer to leave Winterfell for Deepwood Motte, which results in Ramsay sacking Winterfell. So, to summarize, Bloodraven provided the Lannisters with advantages so that they would triumph in their intrigues against Ned, and he psychologically manipulated Theon so that he would lose Winterfell to Ramsay. Bloodraven has actively worked to create the circumstances that have left Winterfell vulnerable, so that the Others will be able to rescue their queen and begin a new war against the humans. I don't want to fall into the trap of claiming that Bloodraven was responsible for everything; I think that most events in the story happened without his direct interference. But, thanks to his greensight giving him glimpses of the future, Bloodraven has found a few places where just a small nudge can result in things going the way he wants them to.
Of course, putting Winterfell in a vulnerable position only matters if the Others know about that vulnerability. Bloodraven must have some communication with the Others. I'm not sure what this communication looks like; if the Others can dream, then it might just mean sending them green dreams prophesying Winterfell's coming vulnerability. Alternatively, Bloodraven might be communicating with them directly by skinchanging into a raven. Maybe he's posing as a human traitor, willing to sell out the humans and the CotF, a kind of second Night's King? This is definitely the biggest missing piece in my theory, but I don't think it's too outlandish to posit Bloodraven has some means of getting information to the Others, and that he's thereby clued the Others in on Winterfell's coming vulnerability.

A politically useful apocalypse

I've talked a lot about the CotF's motivations, but not at all about Bloodraven's, so let's do that now. I'd recommend you read this excellent series of posts on Bloodraven, which I'll be drawing from heavily. Prior to becoming the Last Greenseer, Bloodraven was primarily occupied with the Blackfyres. He played a crucial role in ending the First Blackfyre Rebellion, including but not limited to killing Daemon Blackfyre and his eldest two sons, and since then he went to every effort to foil future Blackfyre attempts to claim the Iron Throne. Some people have speculated that Bloodraven did so out of duty and a desire to keep the realm stable, but this doesn't hold up. Following Maekar I's death, a Great Council was held to determine the succession, and Bloodraven invited and then immediately killed Aenys Blackfyre. Bloodraven later claimed that this was for the good of the realm, but鈥 how? If the Great Council had selected Aenys as the next king, the crown would have passed to him just as peacefully and rightfully as it ended up passing to Aegon V. If Bloodraven was truly motivated by duty and a desire for peace, he would have had no reason to kill Aenys. The only explanation for Bloodraven's actions is that he genuinely did not want a Blackfyre to take the throne, no matter the circumstances surrounding their accession. In fact, his anti-Blackfyre obsession was so intense that he ignored the devastation caused by Dagon Greyjoy, because addressing it would leave the throne vulnerable to the Blackfyres:
"Myself, I blame Bloodraven," Ser Kyle went on. "He is the King's Hand, yet he does nothing, whilst the krakens spread flame and terror up and down the sunset sea."
Ser Maynard gave a shrug. "His eye is fixed on Tyrosh, where Bittersteel sits in exile, plotting with the sons of Daemon Blackfyre. So he keeps the king's ships close at hand, lest they attempt to cross." (The Mystery Knight)
It's important to note that Maynard Plumm was probably a glamored Bloodraven, so this isn't mere speculation; this is Bloodraven telling us his motivation. By all accounts, Bloodraven's tenure as Hand was an awful time for Westeros, where law and order broke down and few people respected the king. The point is, Bloodraven was not a noble man fighting against a beloved brother because it was the right thing to do. Bloodraven was a Targaryen uber-loyalist, who would gladly see the realm burn, so long as a Targaryen remained on the throne. And he appears to have retained that loyalty, decades later. Bloodraven is likely in control of Mormont's raven (see the series of posts I linked earlier), and in raven form Bloodraven hints fairly clearly about wanting Jon to be king:
"Aemon knew, and rightly, that if he remained at court those who disliked his brother鈥檚 rule would seek to use him, so he came to the Wall. And here he has remained, while his brother and his brother鈥檚 son and his son each reigned and died in turn, until Jaime Lannister put an end to the line of the Dragonkings."
"King," croaked the raven. The bird appeared across the solar to land on Mormont鈥檚 shoulder. "King," it said again, strutting back and forth. (ACOK, Jon I)
Something similar happens in ADWD, but what's interesting about this instance of the raven calling Jon king is that it happens immediately after Mormont claims that the Targaryen line has ended. This suggests that this is more than just a prophetic statement of fact; this is a profession of loyalty. Jon is the rightful Targaryen king, and he has Bloodraven's support.
Given his undying Targaryen loyalty, Bloodraven must be psyched about the coming war between the humans and the Others. Daenerys is coming with three dragons, which will be humanity's best hope for defeating the Others; Westeros will naturally rally behind Daenerys, solidifying her rule. Moreover, dragons will be seen as the saviors of Westeros, rather than as dangerous weapons. If Marwyn was right that the maesters killed the dragons, then this would prevent a similar conspiracy from arising and driving the dragons back into extinction, since the dragons would now be seen as necessary for Westeros's security against the forces of evil. So while Bloodraven wants to provoke a war between humans and Others, just like the CotF do, he wants this for a different reason than they do; Bloodraven wants to use the Others to bring about a lasting Targaryen restoration.

Continued in comments

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2023.05.30 17:50 Then_Marionberry_259 MAY 30, 2023 CCW.V CANADA SILVER COBALT PLANS TO APPLY FOR RECOVERY PERMIT

Coquitlam, BC 鈥 TheNewswire - May 30, 2023 - Canada Silver Cobalt Works Inc. (TSXV:CCW) (OTC:CCWOF) (Frankfurt:4T9B) (the 鈥淐ompany鈥 or 鈥淐anada Silver Cobalt鈥) announces that the Company is pleased that the Ontario Legislature has approved Bill 71 containing changes to the Ontario Mining Act which marks the way for regulations of the recovery permit. The recovery permit will be a streamlined method to reprocess historic mine wastes like the Beaver Mine and Castle Mine stamp mill tailings.
鈥淲e are excited that Bill 71 is approved and will lead to new developments in regulation in Ontario including the mineral recovery permit. This should enable us to process tailings like those at the Beaver Mine in a cost effective and timely manner and could lead to new opportunities that previously had unneeded hurdles. Not only will this allow companies like Canada Silver Cobalt to turn historic hazards into profits but gives us the opportunity to clean out deleterious elements from the environment, and restacking or disposing of tailings in a cleaner more stable fashion,鈥 said Matt Halliday, P.Geo. President of Canada Silver Cobalt Works Inc.
Potential Sites for Application of Recovery Permit:
Beaver Mine Tailings
Canada Silver Cobalt Works completed 127 sonic holes for 354 meters recovered at the Beaver Mine and 378 samples were assayed for silver, cobalt, nickel and copper. The grade for tailings was high with silver assays ranging from 13.7 to 314 grams per tonne. See news release from February 5, 2021,
Castle Mine Tailings
SGS Lakefield produced a gravity concentrate from the Castle Mine tailings grading 389 g/t silver. 0.63 g/t gold and 0.20% cobalt. See news release from March 1, 2019.
According to Ontario鈥檚 Critical Minerals Strategy , the government is encouraging mineral recovery from mining waste. Mining is becoming cleaner through new technology that reduces environmental impacts. To facilitate mineral recovery, Ontario amended the Mining Act to introduce the new recovery permit. This will allow the reprocessing of mining wastes without the requirement to file a mine production closure plan or obtain a mining lease. The government has stated it is committed to developing the regulatory framework for the mineral recovery program, and is exploring innovative solutions for rethinking mining wastes. The intention is to measure success by reducing the burden and realizing cost savings for the mineral development sector, reduce the time an application takes, increase clarity on the regulatory requirement and application process.
Part of the framework:
To obtain a recovery permit to undertake this activity, an applicant is required to demonstrate in its application that it will remediate the land such that the condition of the land, with respect to one or more of: (i) public health and safety or (ii) the environment, is improved following the recovery and remediation activities. (Source: Environmental Registry of Ontario March 2, 2023 ero.ontario.ca )
The recovery permit provisions have not yet come into force.
Qualified person
The technical information in this news release was approved and prepared under the supervision of Mr. Matthew Halliday, P.Geo., (PGO), President and COO of Canada Silver Cobalt Works Inc., a qualified person accordance with National Instrument 43-101.
Quality Assurance/Quality Control
The Beaver tailings were sampled using a Sonic drill. The drill holes are all vertical with a maximum hole length of 4.78 m and a maximum sample length of 1.6 m (average individual sample length 0.8 m). Drill sample recovery is around 85%. Two quality control samples (blank and standards) were inserted into each batch of 20 samples. The tailings samples were placed in a plastic bag, tagged and sealed then shipped to ALS laboratory Val D'Or. The entire sample was dried, weighed and fully pulverized up to 250 g 85% <75 碌m. Samples were then split using riffle splitter and 35 elements were analysed using Aqua Regia ICP-AES. Samples grading above 100 g/t Ag, 10,000 ppm Cu, 10,000 ppm Mo, 10,000 ppm Pb or 10,000 ppm Zn were reanalysed using OG46 Method. A total of 10 blank and 10 standards (STD 1 and STD 2) were used during the sampling program.
A 120-kilogram sample from the Castle mine鈥檚 historic tailings pond was randomly collected in pails and subsequently transported by courier to SGS Laboratories, an accredited lab in Lakefield, Ontario. Samples were submitted for assay. Aqua regia digestion and atomic absorption finish were used for silver, gold, cobalt, nickel and copper analysis.
Cautionary Statement
No resource estimate or economic analysis of the Castle tailings area has been carried out by the Company.
Canada Cobalt will not be basing a production decision at Castle on a feasibility study of mineral reserves demonstrating economic and technical viability, and as a result there is increased uncertainty and there are multiple technical and economic risks of failure associated with such a decision. These risks, among others, include areas that are analyzed in more detail in a feasibility study, such as applying economic analysis to resources and reserves, more detailed metallurgy and a number of specialized studies in areas such as mining and recovery methods, market analysis, and environmental and community impacts.
About Canada Silver Cobalt Works Inc.
Canada Silver Cobalt Works Inc. recently discovered a major high-grade silver vein system at Castle East located 1.5 km from its 100%-owned, past-producing Castle Mine near Gowganda in the prolific and world-class silver-cobalt mining district of Northern Ontario. The Company has completed a 60,000m drill program aimed at expanding the size of the deposit with an update to the resource estimate underway.
In May 2020, based on a small initial drill program, the Company published the region鈥檚 first 43-101 resource estimate that contained a total of 7.56 million ounces of silver in Inferred resources, comprising very high-grade silver (8,582 grams per tonne un-cut or 250.2 oz/ton) in 27,400 tonnes of material from two sections (1A and 1B) of the Castle East Robinson Zone, beginning at a vertical depth of approximately 400 meters. Note that mineral resources that are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability. Please refer to Canada Silver Cobalt Works Press Release May 28, 2020, for the resource estimate. Report reference: Rachidi, M. 2020, NI 43-101 Technical Report Mineral Resource Estimate for Castle East, Robinson Zone, Ontario, Canada, with an effective date of May 28, 2020, and a signature date of July 13, 2020.
The Company also has: (1) 14 battery metals properties in Northern Quebec where it has recently completed a nearly 16,000-metre drill program on the Graal property; and (2) the prospective 1,000-hectare Eby-Otto gold property close to Agnico Eagle鈥檚 high-grade Macassa Mine near Kirkland Lake, Ontario where it is exploring. (3) lithium property 鈥 230 square kilometers of greenfield exploration ground focussed along a significant volcanic sedimentary rock 鈥 Archean granite contact near Cochrane, Ontario contiguous to Power Metals鈥 Case Lake Lithium properties.
Canada Silver Cobalt鈥檚 flagship silver-cobalt Castle mine and 78 sq. km Castle Property feature strong exploration upside for silver, cobalt, nickel, gold, and copper. With underground access at the fully owned Castle Mine, an exceptional high-grade silver discovery at Castle East, a pilot plant to produce cobalt-rich gravity concentrates, a processing facility (TTL Laboratories) in the town of Cobalt, and a proprietary hydrometallurgical process known as Re-2Ox (for the creation of technical-grade cobalt sulphate as well as nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) formulations), Canada Silver Cobalt is strategically positioned to become a Canadian leader in the silver-cobalt space. More information at www.canadasilvercobaltworks.com
鈥淔rank J. Basa鈥
Frank J. Basa, P. Eng.
Chief Executive Officer
For further information, contact:
Frank J. Basa, P.Eng.
Chief Executive Officer
Wayne Cheveldayoff,
Corporate Communications
P: 416-710-2410
E: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Service Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.
Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. This news release may contain forward-looking statements which include, but are not limited to, comments that involve future events and conditions, which are subject to various risks and uncertainties. Except for statements of historical facts, comments that address resource potential, upcoming work programs, geological interpretations, receipt and security of mineral property titles, availability of funds, and others are forward-looking. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results may vary materially from those statements. General business conditions are factors that could cause actual results to vary materially from forward-looking statements. A detailed discussion of the risk factors encountered by Canada Silver Cobalt is available in the Company鈥檚 Annual Information Form dated July 19, 2021 for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 available under the Company鈥檚 profile on SEDAR at www.sedar.com.
Copyright (c) 2023 TheNewswire - All rights reserved.
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2023.05.30 17:47 honkygrandma88 GLK vs GTI vs V60 vs NX200T vs QX70

Looking for an upgrade from my current car, a 2008 Infiniti EX35. I鈥檝e been happy with the performance and driving dynamics, but I need more headroom and at 15 years old the issues are piling up. For context: I live in a big city, make $120k yr, drive less than 5k miles/yr. Tired of the EX, but don鈥檛 want much of a car payment if I can avoid it.
Budget: $23k<10 yrs old, <100k miles
Practical--Wagon, small SUV or hatchback. Good headroom (I鈥檓 6'4" and the EX35 feels cramped), short length (EX is 182" long, I wouldnt want to go more than an inch or two longer) for city parking.
FUN to drive--quick (>250 hp), good handling/steering feel
Luxurious-- Heated leather, good looking dash, nice materials. We don鈥檛 need all the bells and whistles, but the car should be a good-looking and comfortable place to be
Maintenance--Reliability is important, as are reasonable maintenance costs. Obviously we want something that is safe and won鈥檛 leave us stranded, but given how little driving we do I鈥檓 willing to spend a bit more on maintenance and such. That said, we hope to keep this car for at least 5 years.
Some cars I鈥檓 considering:
2013-15 Mercedes GLK 350-- A little old and not super luxurious, but they seem to be reliable, practical and fun to drive. Probably the worst in terms of infotainment.
2016-18 VW GTI鈥 Comfortable, fun, and practical. Some reliability concerns, but the Mk7 generation is supposed to be pretty decent in that respect. Don鈥檛 love that it鈥檚 FWD, but the Golf R is out of my price range.
2017-ish Volvo V60-- Have not driven one, but I know that Volvos interiors are super comfortable. A T5 or T6 should be fairly reliable, and pretty engaging to drive.
2015-17 Infiniti QX70-- Performance should be pretty good, and offers a bit more headroom than the EX35. Would be nice to get something more different from what I have now, but definitely a contender
2015-ish Lexus NX200t-- Everyone says get a Lexus and this is one. Seems like performance will be mediocre, but it checks a lot of other boxes.
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2023.05.30 17:47 Bombadeir Texas Gubernatorial Order Five: The Texas Prison and Criminal System Reformation Act

From the desk of the Texas Governor Bombara A. Deirer Jr.
It has been found that several crimes in the state of Texas posses punishments which should be changed. As well as that the prison system of the state requires reform in order to properly rehabilitate certain offenders.
1.1. Individuals found undeniably guilty of the following charges will be put to death, murder, rape, possession of child pornography, child molestation, human trafficking, hate crimes resulting the deaths of the victim, slavery, non-consensual torture, war crimes, beastiality, and domestic terrorism.
1.1.B. Any individuals sentenced to 100 years or more of jail time will be put to death.
1.2. If any crimes which have not been written here are found widely by the people of Texas to deserve the penalty of death then section 1 clause 1 of this bill will be amended.
1.3. If any crimes which have been written here are found widely by the people of Texas to not deserve the penalty of death then section 1 clause 1 of this bill will be amended.
1.4. The execution method for those receiving the death penalty in the state of Texas shall be hanging.
2.1. Incarcerated individuals within the state of Texas must be payed minimum wage if they work for the state.
2.2. Slavery, also known as unpaid labor, or enforced labor within the Texas prison system shall hereby no longer occur in regards to incarcerated individuals who have not received a life sentence.
2.3. Incarcerated individuals who were imprisoned for misdemeanors will be rehabilitated.
2.4. A maximum sentence for individuals imprisoned due to three or less misdemeanors will be set for 75 years.
2.5. Individuals imprisoned due to three or less misdemeanors will be allowed to work for an employer outside of prison grounds whenever they have served 15% of their prison sentence.
2.6. The Education for the Incarcerated Program will be started. This is a state program which will sponsor the education of individuals imprisoned due to three or less misdemeanors. The program will allow individuals imprisoned due to three or less misdemeanors to receive their GED before they leave prison.
2.7. Three rehabilitation compounds will be built. The Eastern State Rehabilitative Facility will be built in Palestine. The Central State Rehabilitative Facility will be built in Waco. The Western State Rehabilitative Facility will be built in San Angelo.
2.7.B. Each of these facilities will have a housing-capacity of 500.
2.7.C. Each rehabilitative housing cell shall be 7 feet by 7 feet. Each rehabilitative housing cell shall possess a bed, a radio, a book shelf, a dresser, a toilet with a curtain to close it off, a window, and a full length mirror.
2.7.D. Individuals incarcerated within these facilities may ask to have a pet cat. If they do they animal shall come from a local shelter. It shall be neutered. The incarcerated individual will be required to take care of their cat on their own accord, this includes paying for food, vet expenses, etc.
2.7.E. Mental health services will be available to those individuals in need of it. Rehabilitative programs will occur weekly as scheduled by staff.
2.8. Mental health services will be available within all schools. School counselors will be required to have a degree in a topic related to physiology, teen development, etc.
2.8.B. School counselors must be available for students at any time within school hours. School counselors must give students their time or at a minimum a recognition of their concern and appointment to speak.
submitted by Bombadeir to PSUS_governors [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:47 GrumpisGrump3 THE KRAKEN!!!

THE KRAKEN!!! submitted by GrumpisGrump3 to InsanePeopleQuora [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:31 tmassey28 Weird Map Lights Problem

Map lights only come on when the door is open and the switch is set to door. They do not work when driving if the door hasn鈥檛 been opened and they shut off once door is closed after a couple seconds. When set to 鈥渙ff鈥 on the 鈥淒ooOff鈥 switch, they don鈥檛 work at all.
Honda CR-V 2008. Most hondas have the same lights setup
submitted by tmassey28 to AskElectricians [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:29 ckwindc Honda lease

2023 Honda Accord LX lease. $299/month for 36. 3299 down. It鈥檚 the advertised lease info they sent me and I was wondering how much negotiating room past Honda lessees have had. Want to keep the down payment as low as possible.
submitted by ckwindc to leasehackr [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:17 Professional-Bet-910 why does it sound like this? im scared

why does it sound like this? im scared
my brother jgh n the was empty. smelt like burnt metal or rubber not rlly sure. yesterday it wasnt like this but idk what happened. can yall diagnose this? my brother said the car died at a stoplight and jus before he got home it died again. its a 2000 honda accord w 150k km automatic trans
submitted by Professional-Bet-910 to accord [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:04 monkegobanana trying to break a concrete floor with an egg using math

To break an concrete floor it would atleast need a cannon or launcher,
To break a concrete floor with an egg launched from a cannon or a rocket, we need to consider the projectile motion of the egg and the impact force it exerts on the concrete.
According to some sources, the force needed to crack a concrete floor is about 7.5 kN per square meter of concrete. This means that the egg needs to deliver at least this much force over its contact area with the concrete when it hits the floor.
To calculate the impact force of the egg, we need to know its mass, its launch speed, and its launch angle. We also need to know the distance and height difference between the launch point and the target point on the floor.
Let's assume that the mass of the egg is 0.057 kg, the launch speed is 100 m/s (a typical value for a cannon鹿), and the launch angle is 45掳 (the optimal angle for maximum range). Let's also assume that the distance between the launch point and the target point is 500 m, and that there is no height difference between them (the launch point and the target point are at the same level).
Using the equations of projectile motion鲁, we can find that the time of flight of the egg is about 7.1 s, and that its speed just before hitting the floor is about 141 m/s. The impact force of the egg can be estimated by dividing its change in momentum by its impact duration:
$$F = \frac{\Delta p}{\Delta t} = \frac{m \Delta v}{\Delta t}$$
where $F$ is the impact force, $\Delta p$ is the change in momentum, $m$ is the mass of the egg, $\Delta v$ is the change in velocity, and $\Delta t$ is the impact duration.
The change in velocity of the egg is equal to its final velocity minus its initial velocity. Since we assumed that there is no air resistance, these velocities have the same magnitude but opposite directions. Therefore,
$$\Delta v = -2v_0$$
where $v_0$ is the launch speed.
The impact duration of the egg depends on how much it deforms when it hits the floor. This deformation can be estimated by using Hooke's law:
$$F = k \Delta x$$
where $k$ is the spring constant of the egg, and $\Delta x$ is its deformation.
The spring constant of an egg can be calculated by using its Young's modulus and its geometry:
$$k = \frac{E A}{L}$$
where $E$ is the Young's modulus of eggshell, $A$ is its cross-sectional area, and $L$ is its length.
According to some sources, the Young's modulus of eggshell is about 3.7 GPa, and its thickness is about 0.3 mm. Assuming that the egg has a spherical shape with a diameter of 4 cm, we can find that its cross-sectional area is about 0.0013 m2, and its length is about 0.04 m. Therefore,
$$k = \frac{(3.7 \times 109)(0.0013)}{0.04} \approx 1.2 \times 108 N/m$$
Using Hooke's law, we can find that the deformation of the egg when it hits the floor with a force of 7.5 kN (the minimum force needed to crack concrete) is:
$$\Delta x = \frac{F}{k} = \frac{(7.5 \times 103)}{(1.2 \times 108)} \approx 6.3 \times 10{-5} m$$
This means that the egg compresses by about 0.063 mm when it hits the floor with enough force to crack concrete.
Using this deformation, we can estimate the impact duration of the egg by using conservation of energy:
$$\frac{1}{2}mv_02 = \frac{1}{2}k\Delta x2 + W_g$$
where $W_g$ is the work done by gravity during the impact.
Since we assumed that there is no height difference between the launch point and the target point, we can neglect $W_g$. Solving for $\Delta t$, we get:
$$\Delta t = \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}}\sqrt{\frac{v_02}{\Delta x2}-1}$$
Plugging in our values, we get:
$$\Delta t = \sqrt{\frac{(0.057)}{(1.2 \times 108)}}\sqrt{\frac{(100)2}{(6.3 \times 10{-5})2}-1} \approx 4.8 \times 10{-4} s$$
This means that the impact lasts for about 0.48 ms.
Finally, using our formula for impact force, we get:
$$F = \frac{m \Delta v}{\Delta t} = \frac{(0.057)(-2)(100)}{(4.8 \times 10{-4})} \approx -23.8 kN$$
This means that to break a concrete floor with an egg launched from a cannon or a rocket at 100 m/s and 45掳, we would need to apply a force of about 23.8 kN to the egg.
Of course, this is a very rough estimate and there are many factors that can affect the actual force required, such as air resistance, drag coefficient, shape factor, impact angle, concrete strength, etc. But it gives us an idea of how much force would be required theoretically.
submitted by monkegobanana to mathmemes [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:19 BusinessWes [Online][5E][ET][UTC-4] "The Stranger'' Cosmic Horror Campaign Seeking Players. High production value. Professionally Streamed & Recorded. (Post 3/4)

Original post: https://www.reddit.com/lfg/comments/13gfsqa/online5eetutc4_the_stranger_cosmic_horro (graciously reviewed and approved by the subreddit mods)This is Post (3/4), we're posting this four weeks in a row before making final picks.
This is a long post - crazy long even. That's because we care so much to find those just as impassioned as we are about this amazing hobby. We love high quality D&D campaigns, and we believe it takes effort and time to make it happen. If you take the effort to get through learning about us in this post, reading every word with care and interest, we will do the same with your application.
Our commitments:
How to Apply
World Preface
In the enchanted realm of Avarra, where high magic weaves its intricate web through the fabric of existence, a burgeoning form of sorcery takes root. Secluded on the island city of Crowperch, the pursuit and mastery of void magic are richly rewarded, enticing arcanists from the farthest reaches of the world to unravel its mysteries. Yet, the enigmatic allure of Crowperch extends beyond the arcane; a diverse tapestry of industry, history, and craftsmanship entwines the island's very essence.
Beneath the surface, the island's riches reveal themselves: the mines and quarries, abundant with untapped potential, and the surrounding seas, offering bounties from the ocean's depths. Ancient archaeological sites whisper secrets of bygone eras, while artisans ply their remarkable skills on the bustling city streets. Tales of a long-forgotten, rumored treasure continue to captivate the imaginations of adventurers and sightseers alike.
But one must pay a steep price for this wealth of opportunity and intrigue. It is wise to avert one's gaze from the iron grip of autocratic rule and the unyielding scrutiny that looms over the island's denizens. For those who venture to Crowperch, a single obligation remains: seek your heart's desire, and then depart 鈥 for the island's enigmatic embrace is not meant to last forever.
Application Overview
In this sacred fellowship, we stand steadfast in the face of the dreaded D&D group killers. Our commitment to this game is unwavering, for it is not just a hobby, but a way of life - an appointment that must be kept at all costs. For us, the work does not end with character creation or worldbuilding. Nay, we strive for a deep understanding of each character, for their hopes and dreams, their fears and flaws, so that we may weave a complex and enthralling campaign that will leave you breathless. We implore you, dear adventurer, to show up regularly and with a burning passion in your heart. Let your excitement be infectious, let your dedication be unwavering.
Selection Criteria (In order of importance)
This campaign is getting some big investment. All players will get custom commissions of their characters, animated. Additionally, we are commissioning all maps, tokens, flairs, and elements to make this truly something special.
Campaign Preface
As twilight descended upon the restless sea, the ancient ship, Her Royal Rose, creaked under the weight of its cargo. Its passengers, a motley assortment of scholars, fisherman, guard and others with business on the island of Crowperch, sit tightly in cramped quarters. Even as the tempestuous winds moaned through crevasse and open windows, the opportunities and tasks that beckon them to the island keep them going, a siren's call that drowned out the ocean's roar.
The skies above were an oppressive tapestry of writhing clouds, their tendrils suffocating the last vestiges of daylight as if to obscure the path to the island. A shroud of mist swallowed the horizon, leaving the ship to navigate through a nebulous labyrinth, its destination only guaranteed by Captain Alaric Thorne.
As Her Royal Rose inched closer to Sove, the air grew heavy with mist and sea salt which deposited itself gradually on the railings, sails and masts. Little Henry Williams, the ship's messenger runs throughout the halls pattering on each door, "The captain has an announcement, all to the deck. The captain has an announcement, all to the deck." The clacking of his wooden foot pattering one after another with each step, a disfigurement he earned while working aboard Her Royal Rose.
Captain Alaric Thorne stood on the deck, the salty wind tugging at his weathered features. His voice rang out, its timbre heavy with authority and unease, as he addressed the gathered passengers.
"Ladies and gentlemen, I must bring to your attention an unfortunate turn of events. It seems the Saturation has arrived earlier than anticipated this year. As many of you know, this phenomenon causes an unnaturally heavy accumulation of salt in the air, resulting in deposits that weigh down our vessel."
He paused, letting the gravity of the situation settle upon his passengers before continuing, "This unexpected occurrence has forced us to halt our usual schedule, for the safety of both the ship and her passengers. Once Her Royal Rose arrives, she will remain anchored at Sove until the Saturation clears, as navigating these treacherous waters under such conditions would be inviting disaster."
A murmur of concern rippled through the crowd, many who were on this voyage planned their departure prior to The Saturation. The captain raised his hand to quell their rising unease. "I understand this may cause you some inconvenience, but I assure you, we will resume our journey as soon as it is safe to do so. In the meantime, you may continue your research, tasks and exploration on the island. Sove is well stocked and very hospitable to travelers especially those displaced during our seasonal shifts."
With that, Captain Thorne turned away, leaving the passengers to ponder the implications of his words as the first tendrils of salt-laden mist began to coil around the ship, heralding the arrival of the Saturation.
In the dimly lit corners of their minds, the passengers could sense a truth they dared not confront: Their voyage to Crowperch was going to be a lot longer than they had hoped. As the ship drew nearer to the island, the shadows beneath the spires of the fortress atop the mountain loomed over the ship, casting a shadow over what little moonlight illuminated the darkness.
So we are still small, so monetization isn鈥檛 at the top of our list. That said, our goal is to
  1. Play Excellent D&D
  2. Donate to charity
  3. Re-invest to make better content and
  4. Compensate players to allow them to play more D&D.
How specifically that all happens is still obscured by the mists of time. By participating in this campaign players release all intellectual property created for the campaign to Roll for Impact and related brands. Please note that this is meaningless while we're still small, but consider this hopeful thinking for our success. The next campaign is getting SO much effort, so we want to stay safe.
Campaign Rules
Table Homebrew
Session Structure
What We Expect & Ask of You
I realize this might seem like a very intensive process, however we're being very thorough. Because we have gotten so many excellent applicants, we are going to have no choice but to make some hard decisions.
Are you a dungeon master?
Making campaigns like these is our passion. We love going HIGH production value, HIGH quality. If this is something that you love too and you want to dungeon master in our world, we would LOVE to talk to you. As you can tell from this post, there's not enough dungeon masters out there doing this (clearly way overboard) level of effort.
submitted by BusinessWes to lfg [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:09 calsonicthrowaway Help me help my spouse lose weight

I'm posting in this sub because I have a good handle on the diet side of things, but I want advice on how to handle passing that knowledge to my spouse in a productive way to help them achieve their goals.
We're just back from the doctor and they've been warned to lose weight. At 5'7" and 225lbs their BMI is 34.5 - well into the danger zone.
We've been dieting together since January (back then we started it to get rid of the holiday weight, the doctor visit was only a recent development). Since then I've lost 20lbs but they have lost zero.
I do 95% of the cooking. I go to great lengths to cook healthy low-calorie meals. The problem is that they seem to have intense cravings for high-calorie density foods (sweets, cheese etc), have low impulse control (can't resist cakes and sweets their colleagues bring to the office) and have this mindset like they're afraid of starving if they don't eat until they're stuffed. Most days proceed with everything going according to plan but unravelling with the post-dinner dessert, which isn't part of the plan and puts them 200-400 calories over, basically negating any calorie deficit and ensuring they never lose any weight.
tl;dr: As the title says. Doctors ordered them to lose weight and I want to do my bit but have failed for 6 months. Any advice is welcome. I've tried everything but I'm out of my depth here.
submitted by calsonicthrowaway to marriageadvice [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:06 bankyan Are some Maps of Meaning lectures missing on YouTube? Most complete 2015 vs 2016 vs 2017?

I would like to listen to the Maps of Meaning lectures but on YouTube it seems some (particularly from 2016) might be missing even from JP's official playlist. Here are the most comprehensive playlists I found
I know that 2015, 2016 & 2017 are largely similar with production value and JP's stress going up with the years. I was planning to go for 2016 but it seems incomplete on YouTube, unlike 2015 and 2017. Or is it really covering all the same stuff just in a more condense manner?
What's the best one to go for if I'll be listening to them as an audiobook?
submitted by bankyan to JordanPeterson [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 15:59 JichuSymphony I know these are very different cars but which is better for a $25k budget?

2018 Honda Accord Touring 2.0T ($23k)
2013 Lexus GS 350 Premium pkg ($19k)
Both with around 80k miles.
With the aforementioned prices, which would be a better deal? And assuming I could get both for the same price, would that answer change? I'm strongly leaning towards the Lexus but I'm not sure how the overall maintenance cost would stack up compared to a Lexus GS.
Currently drive a 2015 Accord 4cyl.
submitted by JichuSymphony to whatcarshouldIbuy [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 15:44 DaoScience Determining cause of leak from terrace

I live in the top floor and have a small terrace that is directly above the apartment beneath. There has been som leaks into the appartement beneath causing some damage to the roof and the likely source is from my terrace. If the cause of the leak is the pipes or the membrane or any of the structure further down in the terrace, it is the responsibility of everyone living in the building to pay for repairs of the leak and for damages to the appartement beneath. If the cause is only the tiles on the floor of the terrace then it is the responsibility of the one owning the appartement to pay for the damages caused by the leak.
I have been told that normally leaks are caused by either problems with the membrane or the pipes, which puts responsibility with everyone living there. But there is a long crack in the tiles that I am wondering if may be the cause of the leak itself or maybe have caused damage to the membrane so being an indirect cause. The crack is not wide, the parts of the tiles that are split in two are tight together but it is quite long. Maybe 50-70 cm in length there is a rough line where there are cracks in most of the tiles and in the filling between them. The crack is in the middle of the terrace.
My understanding is that a crack will normally not cause a leak in itself because the tiles and the filling between the tiles is not waterproof anyway and the membrane is supposed to catch what goes through the tiles. But maybe such a crack can make a leak through the membrane more likely because even more water flows through?
I am also wondering if such a crack could cause damage to the membrane. According to local law (in Norway), if the cause of the leak through membrane is ultimately caused by me not repairing my tiles properly then I will be held responsible for damages caused by a non functioning membrane. I have thought maybe the tiles cracking could lead to holes in the membrane because the tiles could maybe cut into the membrane when they are split in two.
The crack was there when I bought the appartement in 2014. It may have gotten wider. Can't remember exactly. But it was mentioned in the prospectus of the appartement. The terrace is also quite old now. It was finished in 1982 and I do not think the floor has had work done on it since. Just paint jobs on the walls.
submitted by DaoScience to homeowners [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 15:29 Bassblaster505 Considering a newer car that can get out of its own way for about 20K-ish

Ive been dailying a 2012 Chrysler 200 2.4 for almost 5 years. it just turned over 78K miles (bought at 32K) but ive been in 4 decent collisions with wildlife totaling 4 bumper covers, 2 sets of headlights, an AC condenser, 2 core supports and general wear is 2 wheel bearings, 1 tie rod end, 1 lower ball joint, 1 starter and i currently have an axle that has flung its grease everywhere that im waiting for it to explode lmfao and a shock thats leaking. badly. Im at the point where i just want somithing else, especially since im no longer in school and im considering moving more to the city for better jobs.
Im looking at options for a newer car that can actually get out of its own way. This 200 is the 2nd slowest car ive owned, only being beat by my 92 toyota corrola wagon lol. For about 2 years i was dead set on getting another 200 but with the 3.6L until recently i decided this really isnt THAT good of a car. Merging onto the interstate is a foot to the floor and hold it. Top speed of 95? Really?
So, Ive looked into the Kia K5 GT, but they seems to be out of my price range, if you can even find one
2017+ ford fusion sport 2.7L. Love the fusion, my dad had a 12 and a 17. these are surprisingly quick and can be had for 19-23K. Really want one of these lil sleepers.
Focus ST/RS but i dont really want another manual vehicle, i save that for the weekend toys.
Honda accord sport 2.0T?
Are all Golf GTI's 30k+?
04-08 Acura TL but ohio rust has eaten most of them up
I Used to have an 03 Infinity G35, while a fun daily it shares the same story as the TL, but usually more beat on
dont care for Nissan 350/370. at all. yuck.
What else is out there new or used?
submitted by Bassblaster505 to whatcarshouldIbuy [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 15:19 Smooth-Cantaloupe753 P = NP - We solved it. Here is how:

Hello, we are running the GridSAT Stiftung. GridSAT Stiftung is a German non-profit foundation deploying an Open Everything NDP with unlimited linear scalability (processor cores/threads) over the global computing grid. In addition to leveraging the InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) and NFTs burned into the Ethereum blockchain, NDP repositories are redundantly hosted with all code, patents, and publications Open Source, Open Access, and Open Data.
So how exactly did we do it?
Below, the constructive proofs and its implementation.
N. Abdelwahab #2SAT is in P J. Acad. (N.Y.) 2018, Vol. 8, 1:3-88
N. Abdelwahab On the Dual Nature of Logical Variables and Clause-Sets J. Acad. (N.Y.) 2016, Vol. 6, 3:202-239 N. Abdelwahab Constructive Patterns of Logical Truth [v2] J. Acad. (N.Y.) 2016, Vol. 6, 2:99-199
N. Abdelwahab et al. The Algorithm of Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh) with Validation of an Entscheidungsproblem J. Acad. (N.Y.) 2014, Vol. 4, 2:52-87
Theoretical background:
Recalling that BDDs are graph representations of boolean functions with with 2^n+1 -1 nodes being equivalent to the complete truth table, we can collapse the tree in such a way, that the function can still be evaluated in the same manner, yet the resulting acyclic digraph (BDD) may be much smaller. Accordingly it is known and has been severally demonstrated, that the variable ordering of the respective input set can significantly impact the size of a BDD (i.e., the efficiency of generating the BDD). The variable ordering problem can therefore be viewed as determining a permutation of the input variables that provides the sequence representing these implicants efficiently and keeping the size of the resulting BDD minimal.
However it is further known, that finding an optimal variable order is NP-complete and that OBDD lower bounds for some special functions seemed to be exponential independent of any variable ordering.
Non-withstanding of these OBDD functions, the NDP bypasses even those exponential lower bounds through equisatisfiable translations enabling BDD sizes approximated by O(M^4), where M is the number of clauses of a CNF representation of the function. The average case fittings for FACT and MULT are even much more efficient when generating the CNF-input with Paul Purdom and Amr Sabry鈥檚 transformation.
Algebra was introduced some 1,200 years ago. In classic Arabic with Arabic numerals in addition to 0 introduced from the Hindu numeral system. While todays elementary algebra symbolizes variables with Latin letters whose values are Arabic numbers, Boolean algebra only assigns true and false values, usually denoted 1 and 0 to the respective letter, e.g., X. Furthermore, subject matter Boolean functions in CNF use the logical and operator (often denoted as 鈭) and the negation not (often denoted as 卢). Accordingly, a Boolean function contains variables and logical connectors representing its form (syntax). The meaning (semantic) of that Boolean function is represented by the ordered set of variable value combinations, i.e., by its truth table.
The Magic:
The relation between syntax and semantics in formal and natural languages is one of the most debated topics in modern logics and linguistics. Its understanding bears important consequences for both, computer science and computational linguistics. Fundamental doctrines of logic (Frege, Russell, Tarski and their followers) assume that symbols refer solely to things of the world and that reference to those things is uniquely determined by the context of a sentence, but not by any intrinsic features of the used symbols.
Classic Arabic is known to contradict those doctrines: Symbols refer to meanings but not to things. Meanings are embedded in the permutations of characters used in the symbols. Thus, a symbol contains its own independent semantic nuance, which is only complemented by the context of usage.
Putting this feature of classic Arabic into action for SAT processing reveals semantic patterns hidden behind names of variables used in CNF formulas. E.g., if indices in variable names reflect repetition lengths of 0 and 1 patterns in the truth table, it can be shown that inducing a linear order between those indices by means of simple renaming, always enables construction of small BDDs.
Please check the Resources on this site for a comprehensive and authentic overview.
Please don't hesitate to ask questions and use in any manner desired, even without naming the source.
submitted by Smooth-Cantaloupe753 to P_vs_NP [link] [comments]